TON AL pohualli

Written by probationideadlyi on May 27th, 2014. Posted in Mayan & Aztec

certified mayan apocal

TONALPOHUALLI

 

 Nahuatl 


The calendar systems

The Aztec were extraordinary time keepers and observers of the natural and supernatural phenomena that occurred around them. The structure of time and space within the universe and their comprehension of it were reflected in their calendrical systems, accurate mathematical computations, and sophisticated astronomical observation devices.

Space and time made harmony possible among the gods. The celestial skies were like maps, compasses, and calendars that served to initiate the principal phases of Aztec life.
The specialists dedicated to finding order and meaning in the universe knew precisely when it was time to conduct harvesting, ceremonies, and other rituals. Astronomical knowledge gave the priests a solid base on which to predict natural phenomena, and these occurrences were seen as episodes in an essentially cyclical concept of time and history. Since time governed all aspects of Aztec social, ritual, and economic life, hundreds of monuments were created with sacred space in mind. Buildings, temples, and city layouts were constructed with mathematical precisioncepheusmayhmagicwand to align with the four quadrants Herald square type ribbonof the universe and maintain the cosmic order.

The calendar system was taught in the elite schools,the calmecac, whose attendees included sons of the upper nobility, some sons of lower nobles, and those who regardless of social class were destined for the priesthood. The Aztec calendar, , which existed in several forms, was based on multiple interlocking sets of cyclesmultylocker. It is speculated that the first calendar may have originated as far back as the Olmec period in the first millennium B.C.E. or even earlier, and that its methods were learned and redefined by cultures thereafter. Moreover, from this prior contact, the Aztec were able to create 3 types of calendars:

  1. Tonalpohuallithe ritual calendar =260 days=8->Counting of the  Days
  2. Xiuhpohualli the annual calendar-365 days=14->Counting of the Years
  3. Xiuhmolpilli 52-year=7 calendar round->Bundle of Years bunda

The 3 calendars represented two methods of Aztec time-counting. The Tonalpohualli-> “Counting of the days,” was a 260-day cycle used for divination. The days were recorded in the tonalamatl, a sacred almanac widely used among Mesoamerican peoples long before the Aztec. Each page of this almanac pertained to a 13-day period in which one or two deities presided. The individual days and their companions were painted in rectangular compartments below and to the right of the patrons.

The second type of calendrical system was a 365-day solar count called the Xiuhpohualli, “counting of the years,” which was mainly used to organized the recurrent cycle of annual seasonal festivals. This calendar together with the Tonalpohualli created a larger cycle of 52 years and functioned jointly as a calendar round of two engaged, rotating gears, in which the beginning day of the larger 365-day wheel would align with the beginning day of the smaller 260-day cycle every 52 years. This 52-year period constituted what could be interpreted as a Mesoamerican “century.”

The change from one 52-year period, or “Bundle of years” ->Xiuhmolpilli, into the next was always the
occasion of an important religious festival called the New Fire ceremony
The years, each named according to the Tonalpohualli day on which it ended, contained one of the 4 signs /– –  –/. Just as the Tonalpohualli days progressed from sign to sign and from number to number, so did the years: 1 Rabbit= preceded 2 Reed=, 3 Flint=, 4 House=, 5 Rabbit=, and so forth. Since some day names were also
used as names for years, the Aztec solved the identification problem by enclosing the year name in a rectangular cartouche, that was almost always painted either blue or turquoise.

Each of the cycles—260 days and 365 days—was the result of a combination of still smaller cycles.

 One of these smaller cycles marked a “day” and was based on a series of numbers, starting at 1 and ending in 13.

Each day number was also associated with one of the 13 Lords of the Day.

The day numbers did not function in a mathematical fashion but only as a set of serial demarcations.

Aztec days were divided into 4 principal parts:

  1. from the birth of the Sun (sunrise) until midday
  2. midday to sunset
  3. sunset to midnight
  4. and midnight to sunrise

The hours of mid-distance in each period—9:00 A.M., 3:00 P.M., 9:00 P.M., and 3:00 A.M.—were important for their symbolism:

  • The beginning of the day 6 A.M.–12 P.M. was called Iquiza-Tonatiuh
  • midday 12–6 P.M.-> Nepantla-Tonatiuh
  • evening 6 P.M.–12 A.M.-> Onaqui-Tonatiuh
  • midnight 12–6 A.M.-> Yohualnepantla

The individual hours of the day did not have names. Observers would only refer to the position of the  Sun in the sky. When they wanted to express the hour they would simply say, “iz Teotl,” meaning “Here is the god” or “Here is the  Sun.” The hours of the night were regulated by the stars. The year count, the day sign, and the count of each 20-day period were said to have been created by the first human couple, Oxomoco and Cipactonal, who were later deified.


Tonalpohuali 260 days

The 260-day Tonalpohualli was a ritual and astronomical calendar used in casting horoscopes, interpreting the influences that affected people’s lives, and recording the historical events of the world. The basic units of the tonalpohualli were the Trecena (one group of 13 day numbers) and the Veintena (one group of 20 name days or day symbols). The 13 day numbers combined with each of the 20 day symbols to generate the 260 days that constituted the Tonalpohualli cycle (20 × 13 = 260).

20 day cycles made up a Metztli or Metztlapohualiztli, meaning “Moon, comparable to a Western Calendar “month.”

THE 13 VEINTENAS OF THE TONALPOHUALLI & TZOLKIN 260 days count

babylon tower

ch
x8 y4  Trecena I II III IV V VI VII VIII IX X XI XII XIII XIV
       arabianlunarmansions
 jaguar emerald sun mort ball moon ball phase change
  Deosil Widdershins
1 8 2 9 3 4 5 6 7
2 9 3 4 5 6 7 1 8
3 4 5 6 7 1 8 2 9
4 5 6 7 1 8 2 9 3
5 6 7 1 8 2 9 3 4
6 7 1 8 2 9 3 4 5
7 1 8 2 9 3 4 5 6
8 2 9 3 4 5 6 7 1
9 3 4 5 6 7 1 8 2
10 4 5 6 7 1 8 2 9 3
11 5 6 7 1 8 2 9 3 4
12 6 7 1 8 2 9 3 4   5
13 7 1 8 2 9 3 4 5 6
flips stone tablets 1 8 2 9 3 4 5 6 7
15 2 9 3 4 5 6 7 1 8
16 3 4 5 6 7 1 8 2 9
17 4 5 6 7 1 8 2 9 3
18 5 6 7 1 8 2 9 3 4
19 6 7 1 8 2 9 3 4 5
20 7 1 8 2 9 3 4 5 6
fatima sahasrara fatima sahasrara fatima sahasrara fatima-adjna fatima sahasrara fatima sahasrara fatima sahasrara

This arrangement represents the main used glyphs as Days and Night division and tonalli.Every glyph is connected with constellation or group of asterisms as by the number of the day we can define the pattern of working powers connected chains with the glyph via the constellations rearrangement.

In this sense, this calendar can be defined by 13 groups of 20 days =13 Veintenas or 20 groups of 13 days =20 Trecenastriniti shield. The former scheme was applied for astronomical purposes. The first Veintena began with the number  and the day name that came up in the sequence of rotation. The second Veintena started with the number , the third with the number , and so on, until having completely repeated 13 times the 20 day symbols up to 260, as shown in the accompanying table. The calendar therefore began with the day signs and ended with 13
=. After 260 days,  would reappear.

Because the tzolk’in is comprised of 20 days but only 13 numbers, the cycle of days and numbers will soon set up an interlocking rhythm of its own design. The rhythm of the Sacred Calendar is circular; many contemporary Calendar shamans insist that it has neither beginning nor end. It has certainly been the source of much confusion among those who are convinced that the Sacred Calendar “begins” with 1  =and must “end” with   =so it is just as well to clear up some of the issues before proceeding.

 

 

Rainbow Key

 PATH OF THE DRAGON GENESIS SOLAR +LUNAR  ALIGNMENT TZOL'KIN TONALLI
 alpha dracon                  
red eastern dragon lair castle                      
1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9
wavespell harmonic harmonic harmonic harmonic chromatic harmonic harmonic harmonic harmonic harmonic harmonic harmonic
harmonic
wavespell

wavespell
wavespell  
harmonic chromatic harmonic harmonic harmonic harmonic  harmonic harmonic harmonic  bluemonkeygenesis harmonic harmonic
bluewesterncastleof burning
wavespell harmonic
harmonic
wavespell    
wavespell    
  harmonic alien king
greencentralcastle
harmonic harmonic harmonic harmonic harmonic  harmonic harmonic  wavespell harmonic harmonic
harmonic harmonic
harmonic chromatic   wavespell
harmonic wavespell bluemonkeygenesis     harmonic
wavespell
chromatic    
harmonic harmonic harmonic harmonic harmonic harmonic  harmonic harmonic harmonic chromatic harmonic harmonic
chitow
wavespell
harmonic
wavespell    chromatic
    wavespell
  wavespell  
yellowcastleof giving
harmonic harmonic harmonic harmonic harmonic harmonic harmonic  chromatic harmonic harmonic  harmonic harmonic harmonic
harmonic
wavespell    
wavespell      
wavespell  harmonic     wavespell
 

The tzolk’in is a circle, not a straight line. To try to force a “beginning” or an “end” upon the circle of time is to impose our own Western linear concepts onto a world in which they have no place. Imix may serve as a logical “beginning” in certain respects because each of the allimportant prophetic cycles called k’atuns (19.7 of our years) ended on an Ahau day; therefore, a new k’atun always began on an Imix day. But this should by no means be taken as evidence that the tzolk’in itself “begins” on Imix. Some writers have asserted that the Imix beginning represents a “Yucatecan Day Count” based on principles different than the K’iche’ count. This is nonsense. The Mayan prophetic writings, the Books of Chilam Balam written in Yucatec, always begin the count of the days with  rather than

The reason is simple. At the time of the Conquest, the Yucatecans were using Type IV Year Lords and Kan was the Year Lord that began the Calendar Round.The tzolk’in days themselves were the same everywhere. If it was 4 Chicchan at Chichen Itza, it would be 4 Chicchan among the Toltecs as well, and it would be 4 Chicchan in the highlands of Guatemala.
The day count never changed; it still hasn’t.

There is, however, a faction among academic scholars that believes the Maya somehow “lost” two days out of the count at some point in history. In fact, they seem to believe that all of Mesoamerica somehow “lost” these same two days, which in my own opinion requires a gigantic leap of the imagination. In the standard correlation, the GMT or Goodman-Martinez-Thompson count with a correlation constant of 584283, the beginning date of the so-called Great Cycle is August 11, 3114 BC, with an “end date” of December 21, 2012. The other correlation, developed by Floyd Lounsbury, has a numerical constant of 584285, yielding a beginning of August 13 and an ending of December 23. Thanks to the influence of the late Mayanist Linda Schele, scholars are fond of using the Lounsbury correlation without explaining that they are employing a variant count. Academics are supposed to be rigorous about clarifying their sources, but scholarly courtesy does not seem to be a virtue among Lounsbury’s advocates. Therefore even academics often confuse themselves, listing a beginning date of August 13 but an end date of December 21!
The Maya themselves emphatically reject the Lounsbury Correlation and live their lives according to the GMT.

Throughout the time that anthropologist Barbara Tedlock spent studying the Sacred Calendar in Momostenango, she never heard a single Daykeeper begin counting from Imix.
Current practice among the Maya is as follows:

  • One may begin counting from today’s date on any given day. One may also begin with the day upon which the current trecena or “round of thirteen days” began, which is to say, upon the day numbered “1” in the current cycle. (And if one speaks upon an Imix day, or if the trecena began with 1, then this day is a logical place to begin one’s count – but not otherwise.)
  • Some communities have “special” days of initiation which can be regarded as points of beginning, for example 8 in Momostenango or 8   in Santiago Atitlan. These are variables from place to place
  • It should be noted that there is some evidence that the Maya of the Classic Period (c. 200-900 CE) often began their count with , the sign that ruled the Fourth World in which we now live.
  • It should also be noted that some of the colonial period Chilam Balam books of the Yucatec Maya begin their count with , which was the primary day-sign among their four Lords of the Year.

In contemporary Mayan spirituality, most Daykeepers have agreed to place at the beginning of the count of the days, in accordance with the primacy of that day in traditional K’iche’ Maya communities. Since my instructors in the art of Mayan Astrology are K’iche’, this is the order that will be followed here, beginning with 8  , the day upon which the highland K’iche’ always celebrate the “tzolk’in New Year.”

The latter scheme of 20 trecenas was the foundation for an elaborate series of ritual associations. Each group of 13 days was a unit named by its first day ->->  etc.). These groups were thought to have special symbolic significance and were governed by a specific deity. This calendar also included 13 Lords of the Day, 9 Lords of the Night, and one patron god for each of the 20 day names. Each unique number-name carried its own special fortunestar vortex two face, either a good, bad, or indifferent one.

The Tonalpohualli was recorded in an almanac called the Tonalamatl- a book of days. Priests consulted the book when a newborn child was taken to them. The sacred book was referred to constantly for favorable and unfavorable days, for conducting commerce, going to war, sowing and reaping, traveling, and even in choosing mates. Offerings to the dead were made from Maymort ball– through August, the period between the two zenith passages when the Sun’s shadow pointed north at noon, an important sign.

Sun & Moon

 Sun and    Moon

Diego de Landa, a bishop of Yucatan during the colonial period, records a ceremony which  provides us with a kind of window onto the Mayan concept of cyclic time. In terms of the Mayan vision of history, the most important cycle was that of the k’atun, a period which comprised approximately 20 years.As they go by the default system mode cycle will be repeated in a same way if not remodelled by our understanding how could be in a new way.

The k’atun was comprised of 20 tuns. A tun is not the same thing as a solar year; while the solar year has 365 days, a tun is a mathematical year of 360 days. Thus the actual length of a Mayan k’atun is equivalent to 19.7 solar years. This is almost exactly the length of a Jupiter-Saturn cycle. The cycle of Jupiter and Saturn was used by Arabic and medieval astrologers to assess trends in human history; contemporary astrologers still treat it as an important factor in political astrology and for our personal astrology like shown in chart.

Each k’atun was ruled or governed by a particular deity, and the energy of each k’atun was vested in a particular lugar sagrado or sacred site. It was here that the statue of the ruling deity was kept.

After ten years, at the very midpoint of the k’atun, another image would be installed alongside of the first one. This was the statue of the deity which was destined to rule over the next k’atun.
Finally, at the very end of the k’atun period, the first image would be ritually set aside, his duty finished, and only the second one would remain, presumably to be transferred to the new center of geomantic power.

This ritual illustrates the Mayan conception of the flow of time; this rhythm is still perceptible today in Mayan astrological teachings regarding the influence of the   and Moon    on a person’s Mayan birth chart .
The lunar cycle is by far the more commonly used factor of the two. As we have seen earlier, there is a great deal of debate as to whether one ought to use local time or Central American time when determining the day-sign of one’s birth. The cycle of the   is based on local time; Daykeepers who work with Central American time don’t use it.
On the other hand, many students may find it difficult to obtain information on the phase of the moon which was active at the time of someone’s birth; those with a background in some other form of astrology, such as Western or Vedic, will be able to do this immediately, while others may have to do a bit of research on the Internet. In order to determine the native’s place within the cycle of a solar day, however, all you will need is the time of birth. Therefore we shall use the solar cycle as an example.
In Mayan languages, the word for “day” and “sun”   is usually the same.The words are the same because, in Mayan thinking, a day is defined as the course of the  through the four stations of midnight, dawn, noon and sunset. Here again we see the essential Mayan world view of a fourfold universe coming into play.

It should also be remembered that in Mayan thinking “north” is the same as “up,” and “south” is the same as “down.” Thus dawn =  east, ⏰noon = north,  sunset = west, and ⏰midnight  ?south. We live in a fourfold reality which is not merely static but forever in motion.

Here, our model of the waxing and waning energy of each individual day-sign also comes into play. When the   goes down this evening, it will mark the moment at which the energy of the current day-sign crosses into the Underworld. The deeper it travels into the Underworld, the more its energy shall wane. As soon as the sun is down, the energy of the next day will begin to make itself felt. The Daykeepers will light candles and burn incense in their shrine rooms to honor the advent of the day to come. As the sun travels farther into the Underword, the energy of the current day becomes less and less powerful as its essence surrenders to the overwhelming forces of the darker half of the eternal polarity. Somewhere round about midnight, the growing energy of the new day will become stronger and more powerful than that of the waning day. By the time the dawn arrives, the old day will have disappeared completely and the new one will rule the day alone until sunset, when it too shall pass into the Underworld, and the energy of yet another day will begin to make itself felt.

This cyclic paradigm is almost all we need to understand the significance of the solar cycle. But in order to interpret its meaning in an individual horoscope, we should also remember that these 4  stations of the day are equivalent in Mesoamerican thinking to four stages of human life, as outlined by the Kaqchikel Maya philosopher Jose Lem Batz:

  • The moment of midnight, when the energy of a new day triumphs over that of the old,corresponds to the time of birth, when a new individuality emerges into the world.
  • rubi and belil sunThe moment of dawn, when the new day shines forth in all its glory, corresponds to the time of youth, when we are filled with confidence and enthusiasm.
  • The moment of noon, when the sun is at its brightest, corresponds to our strong, vital maturity, when we accomplish our greatest achievements.
  • jaguar emerald sunThe moment of sunset, when the sun crosses the threshold of night and merges with the world of the ancestors, corresponds to the time in life when we begin to grow old.

Remembering that everything in Mesoamerican thought is perceived in terms of polarities such as day and night, male and female, summer and winter, we will also remember that the solar or masculine polarity governs our logic, our reason, our sense of activity and achievement in the material world. The influence of the sun encompasses this dimension of human life. Now we can usefully interpret the meaning of a person’s hour of birth:

  •  Those born between midnight and dawn have an intellect that is still at least partly hidden in the darkness of intuition; they may find their feelings a better guide to life than their reason and they may sometimes be more than a bit confused about “how the system works,” but they also have the wide-eyed innocence and open minds of very small children
  • Those born between dawn and noon are forever youthful, filled with enthusiasm. Their minds “rush in where angels fear to tread.” This can make them into fabulous and highly original thinkers and entrepreneurs, but it can also cause them to stumble and fall in the complexities of a world they still only partly understand.
  • Those born between noon and sunset are clear in their thinking, confident,able to navigate the waters of the consensus reality with ease. These are the achievers.
  • Those born between sunset and midnight have the wisdom of age. Even as children, there is something of the sage about these people. This is commonly considered the most difficult phase in which to be born. Just as the sun surrenders to darkness, the sage must surrender her or his wisdom to our ultimate mortality. Surrender is never easy. Neither is wisdom.

The lunar cycle is based on the same principles. Among Daykeeprs, it is somewhat more widely used than the cycle of the sun, though it may be more difficult for some students to obtain information on the lunar phase operative at the time of a person’s birth.
Almost every culture which has developed a form of astrology has charted the monthly course of the moon, its waxing and waning. In most cases, the power and energy of the lunar force is measured by its brightness, from new moon to full and back again.

The lunar cycle works on the same principle as the solar one, but it governs our feelings,emotions, and our intuition rather than our reason, logic, and active life:

  • Those born during the time of the new moon have powerful feelings and intuitions; but like children, they have not yet developed a “hard shell” with which to shield their tender emotions from the harsh realities of life, and may often be somewhat overly sensitive and easily hurt.
  • Those born during the cycle of the waxing moon are filled with emotional enthusiasm. They wear their hearts on their sleeve,arm,horn,shell. This can make them very warm and therefore very popular individuals, but it can also cause them to suffer from too much uncontrolled passion as is controlled by external power
  • Those born at the time of the full moon are strong of heart and clear in their intuitions. These are the people that everyone else turns to in time of need.
  • Those born in the waning cycle of the moon have an inner wisdom of the heart. As with the sun, this is commonly considered the most difficult phase in which to be born. These people, the most highly intuitive of all, are eternally aware of the darkness to which we all must surrender in time –sometimes painfully aware. Wisdom is a beautiful but sensitive thing.

Destiny chart of the Feathered Serpent

The five-sign Mayan Destiny Chart or Tree of Life that we introduced earlier is the basic, fundamental document of what we call “day-sign astrology.” But this simple diagram can be
expanded into a chart comprising nine signs, often known as “the Path of Feathered Serpent.”
While the five-sign chart is perfectly adequate for basic readings, this nine-sign “horoscope” represents Mayan astrology at its most highly developed.

As you can see the chart is composed by 9 points forming a 3 D cells cube  which represent the element as platonic object and is connected with Earth.So this is similar to chinese understanding magical Gua square and also the feathered Serpent is the Dragon as movement by numbers sequence.The Difference is just in a glyphs, interpretations and elements as the chinese system is much more popular and developed idea, but at basic the are all and the same also represent an alignment of Eastern and Western knowledge as repeated cycles of  same systems.By this reason we try to combine them in logical order as the Tree of Life of mayans would be similar to Tree of Life in Qabalah and they are one and the same but still different ideas as separate elements.So the Universe could be 4 or 5 or even 6 folded and will expand like understanding of our personal view point.

vetruvian qua number

Other similar elements would be with Vedic Lunar Mansions or Nakashtras with additional Arabic and chinese Lunar stations all connected with fixed stars and constellations as expansion of understanding.As stated in Popul Vuh saga the Hero twins are just the  :1 Moonstation: Ashvins, the horse-headed twins who are physicians to the gods represented by β and γ Arietis connected with  7/5 Lunar stations –Punarvasu (dual) "the two restorers of goods", also known as yamakau "the two chariots" represented as Castor and Pollux and by this we can make parallels via the involved constellation, stars and Mayan glyphs.And you can't imagine what a mix we will have of influences and all that forms A-kashawood green ball or all gathered systems of knowledge  by different civilization, in different time till our time as know as Present  moment.

These nine signs form three columns or “pillars,” one on the right, one on the left, and one in the middle. This is the path traveled by , the inner power who moves like lightning between the three pillars of our reality pointed also in Qabbalah developed system.
Some may wonder whether the choice of sevens and nines as our building blocks to construct the chart is accidental. It isn’t.  “9 is the number of life. 7 is the number of death. By weaving a tapestry of life and death, we define the totality of a human being.”
The Feathered Serpent horoscope can be read from several different vantage points as systems as in china 4 would be  the number of  and is just the Moon as Earth's satellite is  Lunar developed system called Yesod in Qabbalah, then 7 is also  domain .

On a bigger scale of interpretation via Astrology +Astronomy  from the Solar system starting with the as point   is the 4 th planet in that row,  is the 3rd, 7 would be Saturn,9 th would be and by all those definitions we can get lost in a way thatkun-8 as by 4 in china =, and by mayans  as 7 th planet =, which can be confirmed in any modern astrology chart as  is the Dead influence or the Ripper with the scythe and is the initiator of  major bad stuff manifesting in your life as stagnation or restriction.Then come the Geomancy as developed system of Planetary influences over Earth through electro-magnetic grid,particles via our personal ephemeris astro charts all that we call life structure or just description of different influences over us from Above .

As addition 9 can be related to astrology as  9 th house -higher self philosophy ruled by Sagittarius  =Life and 7 as 7th House -Relationships ruled by Libra-Death

So we must have like dimensional thinking and to imagine the bigger picture or structure like resting on 3 pillars

The Three Columns- Caduceus finger
The three columns or pillars represent our orientation and fundamental mode of experiencing life.In chinese system they are called 4 Pillars of Destiny
The middle pillar is the most important, for it is made up of the

  • Birth Sign
  • Conception Sign
  • Destiny Sign

symbolizing the very core of our individuality, our purpose in life. This is our essential nature, our archetypal imprint.

The pillars on the right and left hand establish yet another basic orientation, this time in terms of the two primal 2polarities which underlie Mesoamerican cosmovision and psychology.

  • WiddershinsThe Right Hand Pillar symbolizes our way of functioning with the masculine polarity, the “real” world of logic and reason, the so-called material world.
  • DeosilThe Left Hand Pillar symbolizes our way of functioning with the feminine polarity, the inner world of feelings and intuition, the world of images and dreams.

 Just as the Right Hand and Left Power support the unfolding and development of the Birth Sign, so these other signs form rational and intuitive factors of support for the Conception Sign and Destiny Sign.
Note that in our example chart, both the right and left hand pillars are made up of signs from the eastern direction. The east serves as support to the north.

     
     
     

Secret Numbers and Signs

If a child was born on an unlucky day, the parents would wait to name him or her until an auspicious sign came in the following days, although they could wait no more than four days after the child’s birth.

  • The days that contained the numbers  10, 11, 12, and 13 were considered favorable, in general terms
  • ↭ ↭ ↭  and  were generally Un↭lucky
  • The number 13 was very important to the Aztec for it accounted for the 13 major gods and the 13 superimposed layers of the world and the sky.

 

 

A page from the Codex Fejervary-Mayer demonstrates one way in which the Aztec depicted their 260-day cycle. In this schematic the calendar was organized as a floral symbol with two sets of four petals. The borders of the petals were marked with circles, totaling 260. Each petal of the Maltese-like cross design radiated toward a cardinal direction, representing the four regions of the universe, identified with a color and a distinctive tree and supported by the two gods associated with that direction. The center of the diagram where the god of fire and time, Xiuhtecuhtli, represents the center of the world and the zenith in the crossing of the Sun during its East-West journey. Since all the symbols were pictured at vertices of the double-cross design, the 260-day cycle was believed to have been made to contain all other astrological and calendrical matters.

This calendar can be used to calculate the ritual years of 260 days -Tonalpohualli, the civil years of 365 days -Xihuitl, or the count of years -Xiuhmolpilli. To use it as a Tonalpohualli, the ritual count starts with , whose glyph is visible just above the upper right corner of the central square.

Moving counterclockwiseDeosil along the border we count the days just as if we were following (upward) the sequence of the table .
Once the trecena started by  ends with , the new trecena of  continues. The reader should notice that the day that starts the subsequent trecenas,, etc., appears with its hyeroglyphic symbol to facilitate the counting.

A full round along the diagram completes the ritual year of 260 days.

To use the calendar to count years of 365 days, it is used under the same principle, but it starts at  /chosen by Mesoamerican convention/ located in the back of the bird in the upper-left intercardinal point. Moving counterclockwise Deosil 18 times the cycle of 20 days plus an additional 5 days completes a civil year of 365 days.

When counting the sequence of years on this calendar, all years of 365 days start in the name days   , which are called the “year-bearers” or “New Year’s days.” So, starting in the year 1 Acatl= 1  like, the count follows with 2 Tecpatl, 3 Calli, 4 Tochtli, 5 Acatl, 6 Tecpatl, 7 Calli, etc. After 13 Acatl continues 1 Tecpatl, 2 Calli, and so on. More details about the mechanisms of operation of the 365-day solar calendar are immediately below.


Xiuhpohualli 365 days

:This 365-day calendar was used for both practical and religious purposes. It functioned primarily to establish general planting and harvesting times and to organize the solar year into a series of feasts.

Under this calendar, the year, Xihuitl, was made up of 18 “months” of 20 days each plus 5 additional days—the unlucky Nemontemi, or “leftover” days— in order to complete the solar year of 365 days.

These extra days did not constitute a separate,shortened month nor did they fall within any of the 18 customary months; therefore, they bore no unit name in the 20-day cycle. Quarrels were especially to be avoided during the nemontemi, and only work that was indispensable to the community was to be conducted. Children who were born during these five unlucky days were given the name Nemoquichtli (for males) or  Nencihuatl (for females).

Owing to the sensible demands of the vigesimal counting systems=VigesimalCeltic, Maya, Yoruba, Tlingit, and Dzongkha numerals; Santali, and Ainu languages, 18 months of 20 days each was as close to numerological perfection as the solar year permitted. This calendar, like the tonalamatl, was not an Aztec innovation but part of the heritage shared by all Mesoamerican peoples. In actuality the solar year was closer to 365.25 days long, and earlier Mesoamerican peoples found a way to calculate its precise length. As indicated by Fray Bernardino de Sahagún, the Aztec has 6 Nemontemi every 4 years, in order to make a calendrical adjustment in the same way the leap years make adjustments to the modern-day Gregorian calendar.

Each 20-day month was divided into 4 weeks of 5 days and had a symbol and feast dedicated to a specific god. This meant that the start of each new xihuitl advanced five days from the previous year in one form or another, it brought the count into approximate agreement with the solar cycle. The year names were based on the day symbol (tonalli) of the first day of the first month or the last day of the last month, a matter still under debate. Under the former scheme, if the first year began with Tochtli, that year would be 1 Tochtli, and the next year would be 2 Acatl, which is the day symbol of the first day of the second year, the day symbol moving by five because of the insertion of the nemontemi days.

As the years continue, the next one began on 3 Tecpatl,4 Calli, 5 Tochtli, and so on, through 13 Tochtli, when the 13-day number cycle would be repeated four times, generating 52 named years (the calendar round) in a cycle (4 × 13 = 52) that could be divided into four quarters.

The Aztec celebrated their birth dates very differently from what we are accustomed. They would seize the individual whose birthday it was and toss the person into the water. When the celebrant came out of the water, he or she was bound and obliged to provide festivities for the day. If the person did not do so in that year, he or she would not be honored again, because it was said that he or she was still bound and there was no reason to celebrate his or her birthday anymore.

 

 

 

Deities honored:

  •  
  • -related to the as the  god of  and to the  as the god of rain of .  was the direction of , the rising Sun, and the years that contained the  day sign
  •  -goddess of lakes 4½°  22½°27½° and streams14½°20°28°
  • c3
  • x8
  • attributed to 

Rituals: Poles 27½°were erected 18° 28½°and decorated 17½°with ritual bannerssix lags magic mountain12°23½°25° 26° in templeshebr alt2½°11°14½° 15½°28½° and homes=26°. Offerings were made to maize deities. Children that were chosen to be sacrificed 25½°   5½°25½°on mountainssix lags magic mountain4½°4½°6½°12½°27° 13½° 22°24° 21½°27° had to have been born under a lucky day signticketauto. The tears from the children were said to be a good sign of rain to come. On the 17th day of this month the Feast of the  took place12°. This day fell on the day symbol called  Magnet compass.png

 

 

  • Aztec Correlation in the Christian calendarstargate: March 6 ->15°25->
  • Mayan correlationstargate: March 313°-22  
  • pyramide orionsbelt alignmnt->The constellation for this month has not been identified because the upper part of Durán’s manuscript was cut and bound

Deity honored:

  •  -god of vegetation and of the and the rising 

Rituals: Gladiatorial7½° sacrifice. Men  16½°20° 24° 25½°who were sacrificed  14½º 16½°  17½°  21½°24°  24½° 27°27½°-> into honor of this god had their heartsheart gear taken out to offer to their most sacred astral body, the  . Once they had died, the priests 1½°19° 19½° 19½°22°25° 28½° 25°would wear the victim’s s-kins for 20 days, as would some of the young men. This act /21½°20½°24°25°  27°/was analogous /   8½°  14°  13½° 23½°/ to the renewal of the ’s vegetation the plant

 

 

  • Aztec Correlation in the Christian calendarstargate : March 26   6½°–April 14 25°
  • Mayan correlationstargate : March 23 – April 11 21°
  • pyramide orionsbelt alignmnt ->The constellation was represented in the form of a bird pierced with a bone

Deities honored:

  • -mother of the war god  -the moon goddess

Rituals: Offering of flowers, first rituals in the fields20° 21½°26½°, and ceremonial planting 19½° 27½° +16½°  24½° 25½°29½°. The s-kins worn by priests 1½°19° 19½° 19½°22°25° 28½° 25° in the previous festival were deposited in the symbolic cave of the earth temple Yopicopyramide orionsbelt alignmnt. In this month, many children were sacrificed so that the gods might send abundant rain

  • Aztec Correlation in the Christian calendarstargate : April 15 25° –May 4  13°
  • Mayan correlationstargate : April 12  24° – May 1 12°
    pyramide orionsbelt alignmntThe constellation is the same as that of the previous month

Deities honored:

  • c3x8

Rituals: Children were sacrificed on Mt. Tlaloc and at Pantitlan in Lake Tetzcoco. There was a procession of maidens carrying seed corn to be blessed by the maize goddess.

  •  Aztec Correlation in the Christian calendarstargate : May 5 15°–22 
  • Mayan correlationstargate : May 2 13° -21 
    pyramide orionsbelt alignmntNo constellation was visible

Deities honored:

  • god of the north and the night sky; also associated with 
  • god of war, associated with the Sun, the space of fire, of wind, of the meridian constellations, and the years dominated by the day sign 
  • cloud serpent, associated with the Milky Way, the stars, the heavens; god of the  and nebulae that form in the night sky and the years dominated by the day sign 

Rituals: For the Aztec this was the major renewal festival. A youth who had impersonated  during the previous year was sacrificed.

  • Aztec Correlation in the Christian calendarstargate : May 23  –June 13 22°
  • Mayan correlationstargate : May 22 – June 10 21°

pyramide orionsbelt alignmnt->The constellation was represented by the figure of a man walking through water, carrying a cornstalk in one hand and a basket in the other and bearing a plumed device on his back.

Deities honored:

  •   

Rituals: Offerings made to agricultural implements,marking the end of the dry season.The lords danced with maize stalks, and the priests fasted for rain

  • Aztec Correlation in the Christian calendarstargate : June 14 23°–July 1321°
  • Mayan correlationstargate : June 11  22°-30 

pyramide orionsbelt alignmnt->Although this page of Durán’s manuscript was mutilated, the remaining fragment of the constellation appeared to be the fringe of a sovereign’s diadem.

Deities honored:

  • h4 

Rituals: Sacrifices to the deities. The ruler danced and distributed gifts. The lords hosted commoners at a feast.

  • Aztec Correlation in the Christian calendarstargate : July 4  12°–2330°
  • Mayan correlationstargate  July  111°-2029°

pyramide orionsbelt alignmnt->The three signs in the sky were royal diadems

Deities honored:

  • x8 c3

Rituals: The first tender maize festival commenced at sunrise and lasted until 9:00 P.M. The heart of a sacrificed woman was offered to the Sun. The ruler danced and distributed gifts. Lords again hosted commoners.

Mayan correlationstargate :  July 2128°-25 

 

  • Aztec Correlation in the Christian calendarstargate : July 24<–>August 12 19°
  • Mayan correlationstargate : July  26  <– >August 14  21°

pyramide orionsbelt alignmnt->The symbol of a dead man in his shroud, reclining upon a seat with a banner (identical to the symbol for 20) protruding from his back was thought to have been seen in the heavens at that time of the year.

Deities honored:

  •   and the ancestors  

Rituals: Offerings, feasts and dances in honor of the dead, sacrifice to 

  • Aztec Correlation in the Christian calendarstargate : August 13 20°–September 1 
  • Mayan correlationstargate :  August 15 22°– September 3  

pyramide orionsbelt alignmnt->The constellation is the same for the previous month

Deities honored:

  • x8 h4 y4

Rituals: Human sacrifices by fire re-created the time of creation when the godn1  threw himself into the fire so that the Sun would rise again. A pole-climbing (xocotl tree) competition was held among boys.Commemoration of ancestors

  • Aztec Correlation in the Christian calendarstargate : September 2 10°–21 30°
  • Mayan correlationstargate :  September 4 10°-23  

pyramide orionsbelt alignmnt->No constellation was shown for this month

Deities honored:

  •  t1  t1 c3

Rituals: The major harvest season began. Ceremonies honored the earth goddesses, and general cleaning, sweeping, and repair was undertaken. The ripe corn deity was honored. The ruler gave insignia to warriors  in preparation for the coming war season

  • Aztec Correlation in the Christian calendarstargate : September 22 –October 11 19°
  • Mayan correlationstargate :  September 24  – October 13 21°

pyramide orionsbelt alignmnt->The constellation was represented by garlands of Spanish moss.

Deities honored: All the gods because it was the time when the gods arrived from their 20-day journeys

Rituals: General feasting, dancing, rejoicing,and offering of food

  • Aztec Correlation in the Christian calendarstargate : October 11 19°–31 
  • Mayan correlationstargate :  October 14   22°– November 2 

pyramide orionsbelt alignmnt->The constellation is the same as the previous month.

Deities honored:

  •  t1 t1 o1  p3 i1 m3

Rituals: Offerings conducted at shrines on mountains. For sacrifices and rituals amaranth-dough effigies and serpent-like branches covered with amaranth paste were used.

  • Aztec Correlation in the Christian calendarstargate : November 1 –2027°
  • Mayan correlationstargate :  November 3 10°– 22 29°

pyramide orionsbelt alignmnt->

Deities honored: 
Rituals: Commemoration of dead warriors. Ancient tribal hunting rites, communal hunts and prizes to the best hunter. Prisoners were bound like deer  and sacrificed. Fasting of warriors. Manufacture of weapons for hunt and war

  • Aztec Correlation in the Christian calendarstargate : November 2130°–December 10 20°
  • Mayan correlationstargate :  November 23 – December 1222°

The month was symbolized by the figure of a man in a squatting position wearing a mantle and holding a feathered banner in his hands.

Deities honored:

  •  

Rituals: Reenactment of Huitzilopocthli’s victory over his sister at the Great Temple of Tenochtitlanpyramide orionsbelt alignmnt. Large sacrifice of prisoners. Those who were to be sacrificed were taken to the ball court to be killed. Great procession from the Great Temple to Tlatelolco, Chapultepec, and Coyoacan and back to the pyramid

  • Aztec Correlation in the Christian calendarstargate : December 11 19°–30 
  • Mayan correlationstargate : December 13 23° – January 1 11°

Symbolized a child dressed in a breechcloth and mantle.

Deities honored: Mountains of the rain gods  because during this month thunder and light rain sometimes fell
Rituals: Rites to mountains

  • Aztec Correlation in the Christian calendarstargate : December 31 12°–January 19 28°
  • Mayan correlationstargate :  January  2 13°-21 

Symbolized by two small boys dressed in mantles and breechcloths, tugging at each other. Durán compares this sign to 

Deities honored:

  • i1 c3 t1 y4

Rituals: Great feast with lords and priest dressed as deities. Merchants sacrificed slaves in traders’ initiation rites. Weavers honor Ilamatecuhtli. Ritual dances in which the ruler participated.

  • Aztec Correlation in the Christian calendarstargate : January 20 2°–February 8 21°
  • Mayan correlationstargate : January 22   February 10 23°

This month was represented by two stellar signs.

  • The first (on the top part of Durán’s manuscript) shows a man dressed in mantle and breechcloth, wearing a band about his head, seated upon a stool of woven reeds
  • A bolt of lightning appears to be emerging from his back
  • The second sign -flower part was symbolized with a tree, apparently symbolizing the forests of Matlalcueye (Mt. Malinche)

Deities honored:

  •  

Rituals: On the 10th day of this month, a new fire was lit at midnight. An amaranth-dough effigy of Xiuhtecuhtli was worshipped. Toasting of maize. The animals that had been hunted during these 10 days were sacrificed
to fire and given to the people. Every four years, there was a special lordly dance, and children had their ears pierced and were assigned “godparents.” Children were pulled by their necks to make them grow.

  • Nemontemi- The 5 useless and unlucky days
  • Aztec Correlation in the Christian calendarstargate : February 9 22°–13 26°
  • Mayan correlationstargate : February 11 24°–  March 2 13°
    Rituals: No rituals or business conducted. General abstinence.


Xiuhmolpilli -52 years cycle of the Year Lords

:The completion of a 52-year cycle was a time when life paused and had to begin anew. The Aztec understood that if this renewal did not occur, the world would be immersed into chaos causing the 5th sunAhura Mazda -Magical Aethir Movement of 4 clans to end. The renewal occurred at the onset of the year 2 Reed. Aztec scribes employed two different glyphs to indicate this cycle, one a bundle of reeds tied together with a cord, the other a drawing of the fire-drill and baseboard that the priest used to kindle the flames for the New Fire ceremony held at the placed on the completion of 2 cycles (104 years),called the Huehueliztli, or an “old age,” for at such times the Xiuhpohualli, the Tonalpohualli, the Venus count, and the 52-year cycle coincided.
A 52-year period was called a Xiuhmolpilli, or Toxiuhmolpilli, meaning a “bundle of years”bunda or “tying up of the years.” Every 52-year period was divided into four 13-year portions, each headed by a different year-bearer representing a given cardinal direction. An easy way to understand this cycle is from the following example. The year that Motecuhzoma II celebrated the last New Fire Ceremony (1507) in the Gregorian calendar was 2  in Aztec terms.
In other words, New Year’s Day (day 1 of the new era in the solar year) fell on the day 2  of the almanac year (tonalpohualli), a combination which would not recur until 52 years had passed. This is the reason why the Aztec “century” has 52 years, and the next New Fire ceremony would have been in 1559, but the Spanish conquest brought an end to Aztec time in 1521.

Due to the way in which the two calendars interpenetrate, the New Year's day of 0 Pop can only coincide with one of 4 tzolk’in day-names. These four New Year's days were called Year Bearers (Spanish: cargadores) by most Mesoamerican cultures, and different Native traditions used different sets of Year Bearers.

For example, the Aztecs used as their Year Bearers, while the Yucatec Maya, during early Spanish colonial times, used . The great Mayan city of Tikal, as well as the central Mexican metropolis of Teotihuacan, celebrated the new year on Ik, Manik, Eb and Caban.

The K’iche’ Maya of today use the same Year Bearers. The Lord of the Year is called the Mam, a word which quite simply means “grandfather".

Although this may all seem a bit arbitrary and confusing, there is a kind of logic to it. As we have seen, each day-sign of the tzolk’in is associated with one of the four cardinal directions. No matter which four days were designated as Year Bearers, there was always one day for each direction. Any given year had certain characteristics according to the directional attribute of the day that served as Year Bearer.

The years succeeded each other in an orderly fashion. As we have seen, 0 Pop fell on the day 4 Ik in 1977. Thus the year received the name 4 Ik.

In 1978, 0 Pop fell on 5 Manik , in 1979 upon 6 Eb, and in 1980 upon 7 Caban – the number of the year increasing by one each time. By 1986, 13 Manik had been reached, so that 1987 received the name 1 Eb.

How long will it take until our initial year 4 Ik comes around again? The answer, of course, is 52 years (4 day-signs x 13 numbers = 52). The year 2029 will be 4 Ik. This progression of the Year Bearers played – and still plays – a major role in what we might call “political astrology” – the prediction of future events through studying the cycles of time. The Year Bearers were also important in the prediction of climatic and agricultural cycles, forming a kind of “farmer’s almanac” for the Maya.

Before we proceed any farther, there are a few words of caution necessary before leaping into a study of the Year Lords.
Each civilization in Mesoamerica – the Olmecs, Toltecs, Maya, and Aztecs – had its own way of counting the solar year. Each culture had its own new year’s day, and its own Year Lords.
Who was right and who was wrong?
Looking for the answer can drive you crazy. Maybe no one was “right” or “wrong.” Maybe they were all just different

CARGADORES-YEAR BEARERS

I II III IV V
                   

The Year Lord in Mayan Astrology
There are 4 Year Lords. Much like the signs of the Chinese zodiac69, these Year Lords have an influence over all of those who are born during that particular year.
This establishes 4 basic “core personalities.” No matter which of the 260 possible daysign and number combinations we may be, we are all under the influence of one of these four essential personality types, depending on the year in which we were born.
For the most part, the astrological significance of a day-sign which functions as the Year Lord is identical or at least similar to its significance as a nawal or birth-sign. Some of the important points are reiterated below:

The New Fire Ceremony
The ending of the 52-year cycle brought on terror and crisis among the Aztec. The world had been destroyed 4 times upon the completion of cycles, and the Aztecs believed that their world was to suffer the same fate. The New Fire ceremony was a ritual carried out to ensure the rebirth of the Sun and the movement of the cosmos for another 52 years. The earliest date suggested by chronicles for the New Fire ceremony is 1195 C.E., or some similar date, as
suggested in an image of the Map of Cuauhtinchan No. 2, where the New Fire ceremony is depicted in a cave during the Toltec-Chichimec migrations. In most Aztec historical chronicles, the first fire ceremony occurred in the year 2  and has an accompanying New Fire glyph.

The New Fire ceremony, or “Binding of the Years,” bundasymbolically tied together two important but very different ceremonial centers, the Great Temple pyramide orionsbelt alignmntof Tenochtitlan and the Hill of the Star  mandalarium (Huixachtlan). The first fire ceremony was said to have been celebrated on top of Mt. Coatepec, in the region of Tula, during the Aztec’s migration to Tenochtitlan.

 Every 52 years, that first ceremony was reenacted: People extinguished all fires and threw away most of their belongings. Women were closed up in granaries because if they remained in the open they could be transformed into fierce beasts who would eat men. Pregnant women pregnantwore maskshanibal mask5½°8½°13½°17½°18° 19½°25½° of maguey leavesseedbox18½° 29°

At nighttime, as the priests climbed to the summit of the hill of Huixachtlan, south of Tenochtitlan (known today as Cerro de la Estrella), they observed the progress of a star group known by the Aztec as Tianquiztli, or “Marketplace”; today the cluster is called Pleiades

Those who had remained in the city went up on their roofs and watched the sky attentively, hoping that the stars would reach the meridian and that the Sun would rise again the following day. At the moment when the stars reached the center of the heavens, the priests sacrificed a man by cutting out his heart. A fire priest then made the “new fire” with a drill-board upon the chest cavity of the sacrificial victim and carried the flame to wood stacked high on the platform. Through the use of the fire drill, the fire was thought to descend from the sky to the earthly center and permeate the earthly landscape through the Sun’s travels and ritual actions. In this case, if the fire flamed up, it was a sign that the universe would continue another 52 years. At this crucial moment during the ceremony, people cut their ears, even those of babies in their cradles. Then they would spatter their blood in the direction of the fire on the mountain. The priests then took the New Fire down the hill to the center of Tenochtitlan and the pyramid-temple of Huitzilopochtli, where it was placed in the fire holder of the statue of the god. The messengers, runners, and fire priests who had come from local regions took the fire back to the cities, where the rest of the common folk placed it in their homes after blistering themselves with the sacred fire. According to the chronicler Fray Bernardino de Sahagún, this rite was performed for the last time in 1507, during the reign of Motecuhzoma II. In total, the New Fire ceremony ritual was celebrated seven times during Aztec rule. The eighth celebration would have occurred in the year 1559, but by then the Aztec Empire had already been conquered by the Spanish army.


Concept of the Universe

The Five Suns
The Aztec believed that the universe was unstable, always threatened by death and destruction. The first human couple, Oxomoco and Cipactonal, knew that people had existed four times previously and that not until the 5th Sun had the Earth and Sky been established. The present world, the 5th Sun, was said to have been created in 13 Reed, and it was then that light came and all chaos was predicted to disappear.

  • The 1st Sun ☼  4=– had been devoured by jaguars
  • jaguar red  sunThe 2nd Sun ☼  4 =– had been destroyed by the fierce winds that the god Quetzalcoatl had sent
  • jaguar double diamond sunThe 3rd Sun ☼  4=, had been destroyed by a rain of fire
  • jaguar emerald sunThe 4th Sun ☼  4 =, had been destroyed by a deluge that lasted 52 years
  • Ahura Mazda -Magical Aethir Movement of 4 clansThe 5th Sun ☼  4 =, is calendrically condemned to be destroyed by a series of immense earthquakes26½°
  • rubi and belil sunThe 6th Sun ☼
  • The 7th Sun☀

According to some authors, the story of the 5 Suns demonstrates the existence of 5 possible cosmological categories:

  • the concept of constant struggle for supremacy as a setting in which the occurrence of cosmic events can be understood
  • the transcendence of the world into ages or cycles
  • the idea of preexistent elements
    the division of space in the universe into quadrants or directions
  • and the logical urgency for a universal base (1963: 48)

Thus the myth of the five suns involves the cycles of the Sun in the creation of life on the earthly plane by the life force that lies at the heart of the universal order.

Stone of the 5th Sun

Carved in the late Postclassic period, in 1479, or the year 13 Acatl during the reign of Axayacatl, this very elaborate monument to the Sun in its many manifestations is also known as the Calendar Stone and the Aztec Calendar, although in reality it was never used as a calendar. The stone represents human sacrifice related to the cult of Tonatiuh, the Sun god

In many religious systems, the Sun has been worshipped as more than an astral body. For many cultures, it represents the duality between sky and earth, good and bad, and light and darkness. In Aztec culture, it was considered to be the supreme god or the principal fountain of subsistence and life, the maximum force of peoples’ souls, their tonalli. As a deity, the Sun took many forms and names, according to its many stages, and was depicted both symbolically and anthropomorphically, as demonstrated in one of the most famous and studied monuments of the Aztec civilization, the Sun Stone (Aztec Calendar).
The colossal monument was discovered on December 17, 1790, when workers were leveling and repaving the central plaza of Mexico City. For many years it was placed against the west tower of the Metropolitan Cathedral, until in 1885 the president of Mexico, Porfirio Díaz, ordered its transfer to the National Museum. The disk was more than 3.5
meters (111/2 feet) in diameter and 25 tons in weight.

Even though the stone’s outer edges are not complete, it is evident that its original shape was not circular.Chroniclers document that the ruler Axayacatl commissioned the stone; thus, it is believed that the date on it of 13 Acatl, equivalent to 1479 C.E., is the date of its carving. Ethnohistorian Alfredo Chavero suggested that the colossal monument was originally set horizontally, not vertically as it now stands in the National Museum of Anthropology in Mexico City, and that it could not have served as a calendar for it lacked the required elements to compute time
(1901: 552)


DESCRIPTION OF THE STONE

The original colors of the stone were blue, red,green, and yellow. Since some remnants of the colors were still visible in the 19th century, Dionisio Abadiano and some other historians and scholars believe that it could not have been used as a sacrificial monument, for the colors would have faded completely. In the inner circle, the face of the sun god Tonatiuh is carved, although some scholars identify it as Tlaltecuhtli, the earth god; the matter is still subject to debate. The Aztec believed that the Sun was the star that gave light and warmth to the Earth, and to express that light, they painted it with its tongue sticking out, resembling a solar ray. Around his face is formed the symbol of Ollin with four dots, which can be read as the date 4 Movements, symbolizing our present era. He wears the sign ome-acatl on his forehead, which refers to the beginning count of the year after the New Fire ceremony. The tongue that emerges from his open mouth appears as an animated sacrificial knife, as depicted on many Aztec monuments. Tonatiuh wears as a necklace the six counts of the holy cycle, also considered as his beginning.
Tonatiuh is surrounded by another, giant Ollin sign consisting of four calendrical glyphs and the cardinal points for the four previous suns, or worlds.
The Sun, in the middle of these, is left soaring in the zenith, and that is why below him are the dates and , days in which the Sun passed through the meridian in Mexico. Rain was the calendrical name of one of the divine women who died in labor and of the ancient goddess Ilamatecuhtli->the was associated with the evening, and all the deities that carried this sign were also associated to the evening. Here the monkey represented , god of flowers, the sun in the evening.

The smaller rays surrounding this central circle are solar rays, and the larger ones are symbols for the four cardinal directions. Beside the middle ray on top of Tonatiuh’s head are two glyphs:

On the right is , or , and on the left is tletl, corresponding to June 26, the day on which the Aztecs celebrated the summer solstice. On the next circle are carved the glyphs of the 20 names of the days of the Tonalpohualli . On the outer circle are two fire serpents, , linked to Huitzilopochtli and sacred warfare. Over the serpents’ nose are adornments that contain stars that are believed to represent the constellation Xonecuilli.

If this is true, then its symbolism would connect aspects of the year, fire, the sky, and the stars. From the faces of the snakes emerge two heads: Quetzalcoatl, personified as Tonatiuh, on the right, and Tezcatlipoca, personified as Xiuhtecuhtli, on the left. Allegorically, this is the daily struggle of the gods for supremacy on earth and in the heavens (day vs. night).

The two gods have their tongues out, touching each other, signifying the continuity of time— the rising and setting suns, always in contact. A more recent interpretation of this iconography is offered by anthropologist Karl Taube, who suggests that they are not fire serpents but giant caterpillars representing the transformation and rebirth of the warrior as the Sun, emerging in the center of the image in the shape of a great butterfly (Carrasco 1998:174). The glyph at the top, between the two tails, is(1479) and refers in one sense to the date of the birth of the Sun and in another sense to the date of the carving of the monument.
In this monument the Sun appears as the god that makes the days and their smaller and larger components:
morning, midday, evening, the years, and the five ages of the world. Thus the stone is important not only for its aesthetic value but because it symbolizes the Aztec cosmos. What makes it an extraordinary work of art is its rich and intricate composition, full of symbolism and myth.

At the center of the Sun Stone, the wrinkled face of a blond-haired Tonatiuh is depicted with his tongue ravenously hanging from his mouth in the shape of an obsidian sacrificial knife (tecpatl). (Some scholars think that the deity is actually Tlaltecuhtli, the night sun of the underworld.) His wrinkles indicate his old age, and his blond hair (as described in indigenous chronicles) associates him with the golden Sun. But it is his tongue that so graphically
links him to human sacrifice and blood. Tonatiuh is surrounded by the symbol Nahui Ollin (4 Movement), the date on which the current sun of motion (the fifth sun) was created in Teotihuacan In the four flanges of the Ollin sign appear
the names of the four previous creations:4 Jaguar,4 Wind, 4 Rain, and 4 Water.

Adjacent to the flanges,the four directions or cardinal points of the universe are represented like a cosmological map.

  • The  is a warrior’s headdress, which symbolizes the military power of the Mexica and their growing empire.
  • The  is a  and represents a part of one of the previous suns or ages in the myth of creation.
  • The  is a , representing human sacrifice.
  • The is Tlalocan, the house of the rain and symbolizes water, essential for human survival.

In the next outer circle are shown the 20 days of the month. The solar calendar was composed of 18 periods of 20 days, plus 5 days called Nemontemi -use-less and name-less-. Starting from the position of the symbol of the North and heading clockwiseWiddershins, the Nahuatl names of the months correspond to the figure carved in each box that form the circle.

 

Out of this arrowheads symbolizing the Sun’s rays scattering throughout the universe point in all directions. The outermost circle depicts the bodies of two fire serpents that encompass the Sun Stone. These serpents symbolize the connection between the upper and lower worlds and work like an axis mundi (the crosspoint) uniting the two opposite worlds. Their opened mouths at the bottom represent the underworld.

Two heads emerge from their opened mouths: Quetzalcoatl, personified as Tonatiuh (the Sun) on the right, and Tezcatlipoca, personified as Xiuhtecuhtli (the night) on the left. These two gods have their tongues out touching each other, representing the continuity of time. This interaction symbolizes the everyday struggle of the gods for supremacy on Earth and in the heavens with the rising and setting of the sun, which are always in contact

 

The 4 Cardinal directions

 

:The Aztec world was thought of as a grand horizontal disk intersected by a vast vertical shaft. The vertical shaft was conceived of as a series of layers of heaven, Earth, and the underworld joined together by the axis mundi, or navel of the world. Each of these layers was divided into two opposing pairs,representing the crucial idea of duality that permeated all elements of Aztec life. The horizontal disk was believed to be surrounded by seawaters and raised up on its outer edges to form the walls that held up the sky. This disk, sometimes pictured as a rectangle, was organized into 5 major sections , with 4 quarters 
This design came from the idea that the universe had the form of a Cross. The cross was the symbol of the world in its totality, and the Spanish were surprised to find many figures and temples that contained it. If the is rotated in a Northerly direction on its east-west axis by 90º  +so that it lies flat on the Earth rather than being perpendicular to it, the terminal points become east, north, west, and south, and lines running from the center to each of these points would have divided the surface of the Earth into 4 quadrants.
The 5th cardinal point, the center, was attributed to the h4 . Each of the four cardinal directions dominated 65 days in the ritual calendar. Furthermore, each of the 20 days (Veintena) in the calendar came under the influence of one of the four spatial directions through an indefinite rotation that took place.

In contemporary Mayan spirituality, most Daykeepers have agreed to place  at the beginning of the count of the days, in accordance with the primacy of that day in traditional K’iche’ Maya communities. Since my instructors in the art of Mayan Astrology are K’iche’, this is the order that will be followed here, beginning with , the day upon which the highland K’iche’ always celebrate the “Tzolk’in New Year ”

Directional Compatibility Cardinal

Among the Daykeeepers, we can  encountered several systems of defining glyphs compatibility.
The most common way is the one which most nearly resembles the Western system: People whose day-signs are of the same cardinal direction are said to be compatible with each other

Here again, as so often in the Mayan cosmo-vision, it is the philosophy of a fourfold reality or
fourfold universe which is essential.
Human temperament isn’t commonly defined in terms of directions or elements. In Western  astrology, for example, water signs are said to be highly emotional while air signs are said to be more mental in their approach to life. In Mayan astrology, such generalizations are uncommon; it is, however, part of the common tradition that the directional or elemental attributes are important in determining compatibility.

CORESSPONDANCE TABELA DEFIXATION of directional families

mayan glyph element Deosil direction Widdershins direction
 vortex spirall ball
 flame  
 aqua flow break
 earth break ball
 vortex spirall ball
 flame
 aqua flow break
 earth break ball
 vortex spirall ball
 flame
 aqua flow break
 air balance
 vortex spirall ball